Friday, 27 September 2013

Black Uprisings Against European and Arab Oppression 2

ZANZIBAR REVOLUTION-Okello-and-supporters

When Zanzibar was granted independence by Britain in 1963, a series of parliamentary elections reserved two-thirds of the seats for Arabs and Indians. Frustrated by under-representation in Parliament despite winning 54 percent of the vote in the July 1963 election, the mainly African Afro-Shirazi Party joined forces with the left-wing Umma Party. Early on the morning of Jan. 12, 1964, ASP member John Okello mobilized approximately 600 to 800 revolutionaries on the main island of Unguja (Zanzibar Island). They overran the country’s police force and confiscated their weaponry. The insurgents then overthrew the Sultan and his government. Reprisals against Arab and South Asian civilians on the island left a death toll ranging from several hundred to 20,000.

Slave Revolt

Stono Revolution
The Stono Revolution, also known as Cato’s Conspiracy, was a slave revolt that began on Sept. 6, 1739, in the colony of South Carolina. Nearly 60 slaves killed 22 to 25 plantation owners before they were intercepted by the South Carolina militia near Edisto River.
In that battle, the slaves managed to put up a fierce fight, with some of them escaping. The Stono Rebellion was the largest slave uprising in the British mainland colonies prior to the American Revolution.

Tacky's War
Tacky’s War
In 1760, Tacky, a Jamaican slave originally from Ghana, planned and organized an uprising to gain freedom from slavery. On Easter Sunday, Tacky and his army began the revolt, easily took over the plantations, and killed the slave owners.
At the end of the battle, over 60 slave plantation owners were killed before they were able to capture Tacky. However, Tacky’s War didn’t end there. The movement sparked revolutions throughout the island, and it took British forces months to re-establish order.

Battle of Isandhlawana (South Africa)Battle of Isandhlawana

Battle of Isandhlawana (South Africa)
The people of South Africa have resisted European control since the Dutch and British began invading in the 17th century. In some parts of South Africa, they fought European control until the end of the 19th century. In spite of colonial efforts, Zululand remained free until 1880. In 1879 in a strong show of resistance, a Zulu army under the leadership of King Cetshwayo at Isandhlawana defeated a force of 8,000 European soldiers, killing 1,600. This was the single greatest defeat suffered by the British in all their colonial endeavors in Africa and Asia.
Slave revolt

San Miguel de Gualdape‬
Founded in 1526, San Miguel de Gualdape was the first European settlement inside what is now the United States mainland and where some scholars speculate was near present-day Georgia’s Sapelo Island (McIntosh County, Ga.).
The first group of Africans to set foot in this territory rose up in rebellion and fought their oppressors before fleeing into the interior and presumably settled with the Native Americans. This incident is the first documented slave revolution in North America.

Demerara Revolution

Demerara Revolution of 1823
The Demerara Revolution of 1823 was an uprising involving more than 10,000 slaves and took place in the former colony of Demerara-Essequibo, currently known as Guyana. On Aug. 18, 1823, Jack Gladstone and his father, Quamina, of the Success Plantation, led an army of enslaved Africans to fight against their slave masters for their freedom.
Many plantation owners and slave masters were captured and killed. The uprising had such a strong impact on the British, they pressured their country to accelerate the emancipation of African slaves after enactment of the Slave Trade Act 1807 banned the slave trade.

Battle of Adowa
Battle of Adowa (Ethiopia)
king MinilkUp until it was briefly held by Italy in 1963, Ethiopia was the only African territory that resisted complete colonization by Europeans. Italy did indeed colonize part of ancient Ethiopia, the area along the Red Sea that became known as the independent country, Eritrea. However, under the leadership of Emperor Menelik II, Ethiopia resisted European attempts to colonize all of the country.
Ethiopia won a decisive victory over Italy at the Battle of Adowa in December 1895. During the battle, Menelik’s warriors attacked with a ferocity the Italians couldn’t have imagined. Taking hardly any prisoners, the victors of Battle of Adowa killed 289 Italian officers, 2,918 European soldiers and about 2,000 Askari (Africans who fought on the side of Europeans). Another 954 European troops were missing, while 470 Italians and 958 Askari were wounded. Some 700 Italians and 1,800 Askari fell into the hands of the Ethiopian troops.

Black Uprisings Against European and Arab Oppression

Nat Turner’s Revolution‬
Nat Turner’s rebellion, also called the Southampton Insurrection, is probably the most famous slave uprising in North America. The revolt was brilliantly planned by Turner and took place August 1831 in Southampton County, Virginia. The Turner-led group of ”freedom fighters” killed up to 65 people of European descent, the highest number of fatalities caused by a slave uprising in the American South. Though the rebellion was quelled within a few days, Turner survived in hiding for more than two months afterward.

Haitian Revolution
Haitian Revolution
The most successful slave uprising in the Western Hemisphere was the Haitian Revolution, which began in 1791. Dutty Boukman, an educated slave from Jamaica who was sold to a French slave master in Haiti, organized and started the revolution that was eventually led by military mastermind Toussaint L’Ouverture. During the war, which culminated in the first independent black country in 1804, 100,000 French and British soldiers were killed.


The largest revolt by enslaved Africans was ignited by the Zanj against Arab slavers. The Zanj or Zinj were the inhabitants of the land along the coast of East Africa. They were traded as slaves by Arabs and were made to work in the cruel and humid saltpans of Shatt-al-Arab, near Basra in modern-day Iraq. Conscious of their large numbers and oppressive working conditions, the Zanj rebelled three times.
The largest of these rebellions lasted from 868 to 883 A.D., during which they inflicted repeated defeat on Arab armies sent to suppress the revolt. For some 14 years, they continued to achieve remarkable military victories and even built their own capital–Moktara, the Elect City.

Slave Revolt

New York Slave Revolt of 1712‬
The New York Slave Revolt of 1712 happened in New York City, when 23 enslaved Africans killed nine people of European descent and injured six more. The slaves planned and organized the revolt on the night of April 6, 1712. After setting fire to a building on Maiden Lane near Broadway, they waited for colonists to rush to put out the flames, then proceeded to attack them.

The first Maroon war

The First Maroon War
In 1739, the Jamaican Maroons were the first enslaved Africans to win their freedom from European slave masters. During the First Maroon War, they fought and escaped slavery and established free communities in the mountainous interior of the island. For 76 years, there were periodic skirmishes between the British and the Maroons, alongside occasional slave revolts.
Eventually, the British government and slave holders realized they couldn’t defeat the Maroons, so they came up with a peace treaty that allowed them to live in their own free states in Jamaica. As a result, the Maroons established their five main towns: Accompong, Trelawny Town, Moore Town, Scots Hall, and Nanny Town.

anglo ashanti war 2

Anglo-Asante Wars (Ghana)
Nowhere in West Africa was there a longer tradition of confrontation between African and European powers than in the Gold Coast (present-day Ghana), between the Asante Kingdom and the British. England’s efforts to extend its economic and political influence into the interior of the Gold Coast were met with stiff resistance from the Asante.
For nearly a hundred years (1806-1901), the Asante Kingdom defended its interests and freedom through a series of victories in battles with the British and other Europeans. The British finally defeated the Asante with superior weaponry and Nigerian warriors in Queen Mother Yaa Asantewaa’s War of the Golden Stool in 1901.
This victory paved the way for British colonial rule over the entire Gold Coast, but the Queen Mother managed to keep the Golden Stool safe from the British.

The Amistad‬ Revolt
In 1839, Africans took control of the Spanish slave boat called La Amistad while sailing along the coast of Cuba. The African captives, led by Joseph Cinque, escaped their shackles and killed many of the crew, but spared a few to sail the ship back to their home to Sierra Leone. However, the crew tricked them, sailing north where they were apprehended near Long Island, New York. After a highly publicized court trial, the African captives were released as free men.

The Malê Revolt

The Malê Revolt
The Malê Revolt (1835), also known as The Great Revolt, is possibly the most significant slave rebellion in Brazil. Brazilian Yoruba slaves and ex-slaves, who were inspired by Dutty Boukman, Toussaint L’Ouverture, and the Haitian Revolution (1791−1804), wore necklaces with the image of Haitian President Dessalines as they fought for their freedom. When the smoke cleared, the Portuguese authorities feared that they would lose control of Brazil, as the French did in Haiti, and they quickly sent the surviving 500 fighters of the revolt back to Africa

Wednesday, 25 September 2013

Chinese Scientist Proves The First Inhabitants Of China Were Black

For many years Black historians and Afrocentrists have said that the first inhabitants of China were black Africans.
The Negroid races peopled at some time all the South of India, Indo-China and China. The South of Indo-China actually has now pure Negritos as the Semangs and mixed as the Malays and the Sakais."
( H. Imbert, "Les Negritos de la Chine").
“Even the sacred Manchu dynasty shows this Negro strain. The lower part of the face of the Emperor Pu-yi of Manchukuo, direct descendant of the Manchu rulers of China, is most distinctly Negroid. Chinese chroniclers report that a Negro Empire existed in the South of China at the dawn of that country's history.
( Professor Chang Hsing-Lang , "The importation of Negro Slaves to China under the Tang Dynasty A.D. 618-907)
“There is evidence of substantial populations of Blacks in early China. Archaeological studies have located a black substratum in the earliest periods of Chinese history, and reports of major kingdom ruled by Blacks are frequently in Chinese documents."
(Kwang-Chih Chang, The Archaeology of Ancient China, (Yale University Press) and Irwin Graham, Africans Abroad (Columbia University Press).
But after hundreds of years of the worldwide spread of the doctrine of white superiority and the inferiority of black Africans and their descendants. This notion was poo, pooed by white scientists and others and even by some blacks.
But in 2005, a Chinese DNA specialist, Jin Li, leading a team of Chinese and other scientists, proved through DNA tests that indeed the first inhabitants of China were black Africans.
Li said he was trying to prove that the Chinese evolved from homo erectus independently of all other humans. He collected DNA samples from 165 different ethnic groups and over 12000 samples in China and Asia to test his theory.
Li said he was taught through China’s education system that there was something special about Chinese. And because he was Chinese, he was hoping to prove that the Chinese developed independently of all other humans.
But surprise, surprise, surprise, surprise!
Li’s team focused on a single genetic marker that appeared about 80,000 years ago in Africa. Anyone carrying that marker would have recent African ancestors and could not be descended from the more ancient Homo Erectus.
Li and his team found that early humans belonged to different species but modern humans descended from the East Africans species.
Li Hui, a scientist on Li’s team, said, that 100,000 years ago groups of humans started leaving Africa moving through South and Southeast Asia into China, and that 65 branches of the Chinese groups studied carry similar DNA mutations as the people of Southeast Asia.
Jin Li said “we did not see even one single individual that could be considered as a descendant of the homo erectus in China, rather, everybody was a descendant of our ancestors from Africa."
Li was asked how he as a Chinese felt about what he found.
He said “after I saw the evidence generated in my laboratory. I think we should all be happy with that. Because after all, modern humans from different parts of the world are not so different from each other and we are very close relatives.” (Amen Brother!)
Li’s team was composed of an international group of scientist from China, Russia, India, Brazil and other nations. This was a 5 year project to study the geographic and genealogical routes tracing the spread and settlements of ancient and modern humans.
Now I know there are still many people and probably some of you reading this hub who would be horrified, upset, disgusted, in disbelief etc, etc, if you found that you had any genetic connection to a black person.
And I can feel your pain, because at one time in American history, as a result of all of the negative racial propaganda published about blacks to justify slavery for 400 years.
Many black people didn't want to be black either.
Right up until the civil rights movement, the "I'm black and I'm proud" and the "Black Is Beautiful" movements.
Many black Americans were happy to tout that they were part Indian. part white or part any other ethnic group other than just being only black.
Many black men and women straighten their hair and used skin lighting creams to make themselves look more white than black.
This is understandable, because all of the movies stars and other esteemed images of Americans were white and mostly all of the images of black Americans were ugly, buffoonish and how shall we say it, aesthetically not pleasing.
But the DNA is the DNA and that shows that all modern human orginated in some part of the African continent.
Believe It Or Not
Or read em and weep
"If you get to the stage where you can persuade people on the evidence, that it's solid, that we are all African, that color is superficial, that stages of development of culture are all interactive, then I think we have a chance of a world that will respond better to global challenges." Richard Leaky, Paleoanthropologist

Saturday, 21 September 2013

Marikana: South Africa police 'lied over mine shootings'

Miners chant slogans as they march past the Lonmin mine during the one-year anniversary commemorations to mark the killings of 34 striking miners by police (August 2013) Miners marched past the Lonmin mine to mark the anniversary of the shootings
South African police lied about the Marikana shootings last year, in which 34 striking miners were killed, a commission of inquiry has said.
Police falsified or withheld documents, and gave false accounts of events, it said.
Police spokesman Solomon Makgale said the statement was "unfortunate and highly prejudicial".
The police shooting of the miners at the Lonmin-owned platinum mine in August 2012 shocked the nation.
The police said they were acting in self-defence, days after two officers had been hacked to death by protesters.
This is a searing attack on the credibility of South Africa's police.
At issue right now, is not so much what happened at Marikana on 16 August last year, as the way the police have presented their version of events to the inquiry.
To put it crudely - as with former US President Nixon's Watergate scandal - it is not the crime, it's the cover-up.
It is some 10 days now since a senior policeman giving evidence to the inquiry, Lt Col Duncan Scott - discussing evidence that he'd brought in on his own computer hard drive - almost casually agreed to hand it over to the commission's lawyers.
It quickly became clear that the hard drive contained potentially explosive material, and the inquiry was promptly postponed, as analysts pored over the files and compared them with the police's detailed description of what led to the shooting dead of 34 miners.
That analysis work is not complete, but the commission is clearly so outraged by what has already been uncovered that it has taken the extraordinary step of calling the police liars and forgers, and implicitly questioning whether the Marikana inquiry - beset by delays and funding controversies - can continue.
The commission was appointed by President Jacob Zuma to investigate the deaths of the 34 miners - the most deadly police action since the end of white minority rule in 1994.
At issue right now, is not so much what happened at Marikana last year, as the way the police have presented their version of events to the inquiry, says BBC Africa correspondent Andrew Harding.
To put it crudely - as with former US President Nixon's Watergate scandal - it's not the crime, it's the cover-up, our correspondent says.
The commission's statement comes just 10 days after gaining access to police computer hard drives and previously unseen police documents.
"We have obtained documents which the SAPS [South African Police Services] previously said were not in existence...
"We have obtained documents which in our opinion demonstrate that the [police] version of the events at Marikana... is in material respects not the truth," the commission said.
It said the material which had come to light had "serious consequences" for its future work.
The hearing was adjourned until Wednesday, while the commission reviewed the "thousands of pages" of documents, and sought to obtain access to additional hard drives and electronic records.
Our correspondent says that the commission is clearly so outraged by what has already been uncovered that it has taken the extraordinary step of calling the police liars and forgers, and implicitly questioning whether the Marikana inquiry - beset by delays and funding controversies - can continue.
The police spokesman said the commission had passed judgment without giving the police a chance to explain.
The inquiry has been delayed several times over the question of who should pay the legal fees for hundreds of injured and arrested miners. The new information may jeopardise its October deadline.
Demonstrations were held in Pretoria last week over the government's refusal to pay legal fees for miners appearing at the inquiry.
How the Marikana shooting was reported at the time
In the immediate aftermath of the police killings, the authorities sought to portray the miners, who were striking illegally, as responsible for the bloodshed.
Some 270 of the striking miners were arrested and charged with murder, though the charges were later provisionally dropped.
The government has been criticised for its handling of the crisis, and some of the Marikana miners remain angry that not a single policeman has yet been arrested over the shootings.

Sunday, 1 September 2013

The Janjaweed Campaign of Genocide

A decade after the Dinka massacre in al-Di’ein, the scenario of ethnic manipulation by the state expanded to cover the whole of Dar Fur and most of Kordufan, . . . [and] the era of terror of the infamous Janjawid had been launched. . . . “DarFur has been the victim of the involvement of the neighbouring Arab states in the civil war in Chad that flared up in the 1970s. Libya, an extreme advocate of Pan-Arabism with highly volatile policies, intervened in Chad with the sole aim of helping the Arab nomad tribes with money, logistics and arms. . . .
“The government of Khartoum has not only backed the nomadic Arab tribes, but has also armed them and fought by land and air along with them. All through the decade of 1982-1992 skirmishes and limited killings were commonplace in Dar Fur. The Khartoum government dubbed them ‘armed robbery’. In 1995 the massacres were launched first against the Masalit tribe of the state of West Dar Fur. The governor himself was a Masalit Muslim Brother who was given orders from Khartoum to let his sedentary people host a heavily armed clan of pastoralist Baggara who were driven out of Chad to be welcomed by the Khartoum government simply out of bias for the Arabs. . . . The Masalit welcomed the Baggara. Under the official eyes of the State government which was headed by their own son thousands of the Mas?l?t were butchered in mid-1995. . . .”
Through these “gruesome atrocities . . . which are being overtly committed by State-backed Arab tribes”, the nomadic Arab tribes of Dar Fur have been committing genocide and ethnic cleansing against the African sedentary tribes. As both the culprit and the victim are Muslims, the Afro-Arab race war nature of the genocide becomes very clear. As Jalaal Haashim points out, the conflicts in Sudan are “a racist war camouflaged with religion.”
But how exactly do these Arab marauders carry out ethnic cleansing? The next excerpt, from “Singing while their men rape”, THE GUARDIAN, NAIROBI Wednesday, Jul 21, 2004, Page 6, tells of an ongoing example of organized raping and killing and enslavement carried out by the Janjawid in Dar Fur.
According to an Amnesty International report published in 2004, “While African women in Darfur were being raped by the Janjaweed militiamen, Arab women stood nearby and sang for joy . . .The songs of the Hakama, or the “Janjaweed women” as the refugees call them, encouraged the atrocities which the militiamen committed. . . .
“During an attack on the village of Disa in June last year, Arab women accompanied the attackers and sang in praise of the government and scorning black villagers. According to an African chief quoted in the report, the singers said: ‘The blood of the blacks runs like water, we take their goods and we chase them from our area and our cattle will be in their land. . . . The power of (Sudanese president Omer Hassan) al-Bashir belongs to the Arabs and we will kill you until the end, you blacks, we have killed your God.’
“The chief said that the Arab women also racially insulted women from the village, saying: ‘You are gorillas, you are black and you are badly dressed.’
“The Janjaweed have abducted women for use as sex slaves, in some cases breaking their limbs to prevent them escaping, as well as carrying out rapes in their home villages, the report said. The militiamen ‘are happy when they rape. They sing when they rape and they tell that we are just slaves and that they can do with us how they wish,’ a 37-year-old victim, identified as A, is quoted as saying in the report, which was based on over 100 statements from women in the refugee camps in neighboring Chad. . . .The UN estimates that up to 30,000 people have been killed in Darfur, and over a million have been forced to flee their homes.”
Another human rights organization, Human Rights Watch . . . said it had obtained from the civilian administration in Darfur government documents dated February and March this year [2004, which] call for “provisions and ammunition” to be delivered to known Janjaweed militia leaders, camps and “loyalist tribes.” One document orders all security units in the area to tolerate the activities of Musa Hilal, the alleged Janjaweed leader in north Darfur. . . . Peter Takirambudde, executive director of Human Rights Watch’s Africa division, said: “These documents show that militia activity has not just been condoned, it’s been specifically supported by Sudan government officials.”
["Singing while their men rape", THE GUARDIAN, NAIROBI,
Wednesday, July 21, 2004, page 6. ]

The following excerpt from “Pan-Africa or African Union?” by Bankie Forster Bankie, shows how the ethnic cleansing of Africans in Mauritania was being done in 1989-1990, without opposition from the OAU or its African member governments:
“In Mauritania on 24-25 April 1989, according to the report issued by Africa Confidential, elements of the government-supported Structures de L’Education des Masses (SEM) massacred more than 1000 Senegalese, black Mauritanian, Guineans, Ghanaians and Ivorians, without reaction from the OAU. [my emphasis] The United States Congressional Record, Extension of Remarks of 9 July 1991 (E2465) condemned,
1) the forcible expulsion in 1989 and 1990 of up to 80,000 black Mauritanians into Senegal and 10,000 into Mali, where most continue to reside in refugee camps;
2) the burning and destruction of entire villages and the confiscation of livestock, land and belongings of black Mauritanians by the security forces in 1989 and 1990 in an effort to encourage their flight out of the country; . . .
5) an aggressive policy of ‘Arabisation’ designed to eradicate the history and culture of black ethnic groups; and
6) the use of state authority to expropriate land from black communities along the Senegal River Valley through violent tactics. ” [Bankie & Mchombu 2006: 215-216]
These excerpts show how, during the watch of continentalist Pan-Africanism, with its Arab-dominated OAU/AU, Arabs have resumed their territorial expansion into Black Africa. We have the example of how the Janjawid Arab tribes are presently ethnic- cleansing their African neighbors without resistance from so-called Black African governments. We have the horrific example of the massacre of 6000 Dinka refugees by Baggara Arabs in al-Di’ein village in 1987. We have the example of the Mauritanian Arab government’s dispossession and expulsion of black Mauritanians, in 1989-90, with the complicity, by silence and inaction, of Black African governments.
These are the types of things we Africans have allowed Arabs to do to us for the last 15 centuries, from the Sinai Peninsula to the Senegal River, and from Cairo to Juba. And that’s what they will gladly do to us from Dakar to Asmara and down to Cape Town, if we do not stop them NOW!
Defeating Hitler’s armies cost Russia untold hardship, and 1 in 22 Russians (approximately five percent of the entire Russian population) died in battle. But had they not paid that heavy price, Russia would have lost all its territory and population like the Native Americans did in the USA.
Are Africans ready to drive Gadhafi’s Arab hordes away at any price? That is the challenge thrown by Arab expansionism at Pan Africanism in the 21st century. And each and every African needs to answer that question.
If you think that because you live in Accra or Lagos or Kinshasa or Cape Town, far from the borderlands of today, or that because you are a Muslim, or are married to an Arab, the menace should not concern you, then you are living in a fool’s paradise. The Janjaweed massacre of the black-skinned Muslims of Darfur, under the directions of the Arabist-colorarchist system of Jellaba-Arab minority rule in Sudan, should cure you of your delusions.
This is the moment of truth for every African, and especially for every Pan Africanist anywhere on earth. In particular, if you are a diaspora African wanting to repatriate to Africa, shouldn’t you see to it that Africa is safe from Arab hegemony and its murderous marauders? If you do nothing to stop the Janjaweed today, it will some day be your turn and you might find yourself lamenting and saying:
The Arabs came for the South Sudanese, and I did nothing to stop them because I wasn’t a South Sudanese;
And then the Arabs came for the black Mauritanians, and I did nothing to stop them because I wasn’t a black Mauritanian;
Then the Arabs came for the blacks in Darfur, and I did nothing to stop them because I wasn’t a black in Darfur;
And then the Arabs came for my black ass in Cape Town, and by that time there were no blacks left to stop them killing or enslaving me.
For 50 years continentalist Pan-Africanism has been in denial of the race war character of the Afro-Arab wars in Sudan, of the ethnic cleansings in Mauritania, and of Libya’s destabilizations in Chad, Sudan, Uganda, CAR, Liberia, etc. Continentalist Pan- Africanism resolutely played the ostrich as Africans were attacked, massacred, driven off their lands and enslaved by Arabs.